When a player must leave during a game

It happens. In the middle of a game, a player must leave. Perhaps there is sudden news of a family emergency. Perhaps he is attacked by a sudden bout of illness. Perhaps he is attacked by a BEAR!  In any event, he has to leave.

When this happens, his teammates are left with the question “How do we carry on with the game?” Sometimes the question is “Bob had to leave. Can Jim play his boules?”

How does the game proceed?

The answer is a definite “It depends.”

If the context is a formal, organized competition, the first option is to replace the player who is leaving with another player. To do this, the affected team would call the umpire, notify him, and get his permission/approval for the change. (In the FIPJP world championships, the triples teams are required to have four members. The fourth member is a backup for just such situations.)

In a formal competition, if no replacement player can be found, the remaining players can NOT play the boules of the departed player. They must continue by themselves, with each player playing only his own boules.

Still… umpires have a lot of discretion in making decisions that allow competitions to continue smoothly. Each situation is unique, and a particular umpire in a particular set of circumstances might see other options.

If the context is a friendly game, the players can be more relaxed about following the letter of the law. The affected team would try to find a replacement player. Failing that, the remaining teammates could increase the number of boules they play.

Just as an umpire has a lot of discretion in making decisions in a formal competition, the players in a friendly game are free to continue in any way that is acceptable to both teams. The players might, for instance, simply stop the game, re-form the teams, and start again.

Where you run into problems is in a friendly but competitive game (no umpire) where one team is happy to proceed in a relaxed way, while the other team feels that “the rules are the rules”. In such a case, there can be disagreement about how to proceed.

At this point we have a human relationship problem, not a question about the rules of petanque. This is tricky territory. But if you can remember that this is not about the rules of petanque, but about getting along with people who you want to keep as friends for a long time, you’ll be OK. You’ll figure out something.


Open-toe shoes

“Can I wear sandals while playing?”

  • In a friendly game on a terrain without strings: YES.
  • Otherwise: NO.

On the international level, the FIPJP rules require “proper dress” (une tenue correcte) for all players, but specific dress restrictions are left to national federations and competition organizers. The FIPJP rules were revised in 2016. Now, for safety reasons, Article 33 requires players to wear fully enclosed shoes..

On the national level, most national federations have a “Player Code of Behavior” in addition to the official rules of petanque. The Code of Behavior may differ from nation to nation, but typically prohibits smoking, drinking, cursing on the terrain, playing shirtless (torse nu), pets on the terrain, glass containers, mobile phones, e-cigarettes, and high heels. In its Code of Behavior, the Australian petanque federation has required enclosed footwear since at least 2006. The dress code of the French federation has required enclosed footwear since at least 2011.

On the competition level, competition organizers often require enclosed footwear if that requirement is not specified in national federation regulations. Both the FPUSA and the English Petanque Association (EPA) require enclosed footwear for all of their competitions.

The requirement for closed footwear has nothing to do with the danger of dropping a boule on your foot— ordinary shoes don’t provide much more protection than open-toe sandals. It is about tripping.

The boundaries of marked terrains are traditionally marked with strings strung tightly between nails driven into the ground. When installed properly, the strings lie very close to the ground and pose a negligible tripping hazard for anyone wearing enclosed footwear. But experience has shown that open-toe shoes significantly increase the risk of tripping on the strings, and of a serious fall. As Mike Pegg notes

In England we do not allow open-toe or backless sandals/shoes because on a terrain with string lines (to make the lane) it is very easy to catch the string between your foot and the shoe and can do a lot of harm.


It is sometimes said that the FPUSA footwear requirement is a condition of the FPUSA’s liability insurance policy. This, however, may be an urban myth. Ernesto Santos (of La Boule New Yorkaise) says

While the FPUSA has rules about not playing with open-toed shoes in FPUSA tournaments (unless you have a doctor’s note) and some have claimed that it is due to liability insurance — nobody has ever actually shown where in the policy it says that. And in fact the previous president (Ed Porto) has said that it is perfectly fine to have local tournaments that allow open toed shoes.

The Bottom Line

(1) In any organized competition, there is almost certainly a requirement that players wear enclosed footwear.

(2) When playing on a terrain marked with strings, as a matter of common-sense safety you should NEVER go barefoot or wear open-toe or open-heel shoes or sandals.

(3) If you’re playing a friendly game on a terrain without strings, feel free to relax in those sandals. 🙂

A boule thrown out of turn

Team A has the point. Team B throws boule B1. B1 gains the point but the players don’t realize that. Mistakenly believing that team A still has the point, team B throws boule B2.

The players then walk to the head and measure all of the boules. They discover that B1 had actually gained the point. That means that after B1 was thrown, team A, not team B, should have thrown the next boule. Boule B2 was “thrown out of turn”. What should be done?


It’s a boule thrown “contrary to the rules”

Article 15 says that “it is the team that does not hold the point that plays.” So it seems obvious that a boule played out-of-turn should be considered a boule thrown contrary to the rules. That means that we should apply Article 23.

Any boule thrown contrary to the rules is dead, and anything that it displaced in its travel is put back in place, if its original position was marked. However, the opponent has the right to apply the advantage rule and to declare that it is valid. In this case, the boule pointed or shot, is still alive and anything it has displaced remains in its place.

In our example, nothing was marked, so everything is left in place and the opposing team (team A) has the choice of whether or not to leave the offending boule on the terrain. Then the game on the ground is evaluated, and the team not holding the point (which may be either of the teams) plays the next boule.

It’s NOT a boule thrown “contrary to the rules”

But… But… Wait a minute. Not everyone would agree that a boule played out-of-turn is a boule thrown contrary to the rules.

In 2008, the national umpires for Petanque New Zealand (PNZ) issued a set of rules interpretations that held that a boule thrown out of turn is NOT a “boule thrown contrary to the rules”, and Article 23 should not be applied.

Even if the boule was not holding, by agreeing that it was, the opponents in effect declared it to be valid under Rule 23. At the end of the mène, the boules can be measured, but not to determine whether the team had played out of turn, only to determine the current holding positions for points purposes.

Following this lead, in 2012 John Degueldre, Director of Umpiring for Petanque New Zealand, issued the following ruling.

Boules played out of turn are not considered as an infringement to the rules [i.e. as "boules thrown contrary to the rules"] but indeed as a mistake. Players making such a mistake penalise themselves by reducing or losing the ‘boule advantage’. In conclusion, players do not incur any penalty, and boule(s) are valid and stay in place. But it is still the player or team not holding the point that must play the next boule.

The practical effect of this interpretation is that, after a boule is thrown out-of-turn, everything is left where it is, and the game just carries on. The game on the ground is evaluated, and the team not holding the point (which may be either of the teams) plays the next boule.

It’s a little more complicated than that…

Consider these two cases.

  1. The two teams walk to the head and visually inspect the situation. Team B says, “Looks to me like you’ve got the point.” Team A says, “Yeah, I think so too.” They don’t measure. Team B goes back to the circle and throws.
  2. After throwing boule B1, the player in the circle makes a snap judgment that he has failed to gain the point. Without asking team A whether or not they agree, and before team A has time to inspect the head or even shout “Wait a minute,” he throws boule B2.

It seems to me that a player should not throw a boule without getting an “agreement on the point” roughly similar to the “agreement of points” that takes place at the end of a mene.

  1. In the first case team B got team A’s agreement that he should throw. Both teams made an honest mistake and the game should just carry on.
  2. In the second case team B failed to do due diligence, failed to get team A’s “agreement on the point”. And for that reason, team B really did throw B2 contrary to rules.

The second case is actually very similar to what the PNZ called lazy petanque. But PNZ saw that such situations were mostly beginners mistakes, and chose to treat them as such.

The bottom line

If none of the locations of boules were marked (as is almost always the case) then there is actually very little difference between these two interpretations.

  • Under both of them, everything except the offending boule is left where it is.
  • The only difference is whether or not the opposing team has the option (under Article 23) of declaring the offending boule to be dead.

If a “boule thrown out of turn” situation was to happen in an umpired FIPJP-sanctioned tournament, the umpire would probably apply Article 23. But you’ll probably never see it happen. Players in FIPJP-sanctioned competitions are experienced enough not to let this kind of situation ever arise.

During friendly play, you probably want to follow the guidelines provided by Petanque New Zealand. Just leave everything where it is and carry on with the game. In my own petanque group we go even farther. If the out-of-turn boule didn’t move anything on the ground, then it is possible to return the boule to its owner and carry on as if nothing ever happened. And that is what we do.

“Boules thrown out of turn” situations really disturb rules nerds (like me). We dislike the possibility that boule B2, thrown out of turn and contrary to the rules, could create major havoc on the terrain and alter the game dramatically in favor of team B. And after all that, most boules (and the jack, which might also have been moved) must be left exactly where they are.

Our only consolation is that such situations happen only in friendly games among beginning players. In such games the best response is to be astonished and amused by team B’s luck, and then happily carry on with the game.

The notion of “a boule thrown out of turn” is sometimes invoked in cases of forgotten boules. But I think that is a mistake.